# Sunday, January 12, 2014

Integration of Razor and AngularJS (2)

I found the technique I showed in my previous post particularly useful when you need to "migrate" some fields from server-side to client-side. By "migrate" I mean: make fields which were initially only needed on the server side, for page rendering, available on the client-side, in order to access and manipulate them through JavaScript too (for user interaction through Angular, in this case).

Suppose you have a page to display some person details:

@model PersonVM

All is well, until you decide that you want to provide a way to edit the description. You do so by adding a input field (for example), plus an "edit" button:

<button ng-click="'editing = true'" ... >Edit</button>
<input ng-model="description" ng-show="editing" ... >

This modification requires you to move the person's description from the server-side ViewModel to the client-side $scope. That means changing the controller code as well, since Razor does not need @Model.Description anymore, but you need to pass it (though JSON) to $scope.description:

$http.get("/Person/DetailsData" + $scope.personId).
            success(function (data, status) {
                $scope.description = data. description;

This is not bad, and the code still stays readable and compact using the "pattern" I described a couple of posts ago. But I'd rather not touch the controller at all.
Using the couple of directives I wrote, it is as simple as:

<button ng-click="'editing = true'" ... >Edit</button>
<input ng-model="description" ng-show="editing" value='@Model.Description' ... >


<button ng-click="'editing = true'" ... >Edit</button>
<input ng-model="description" ng-show="editing" ... >
<span ng-model="description" ng-content>@Model.Description</span>

No need for an additional $http request, nor for another controller action.
The "value" attibute on the input, or the element text of the span, will be written out by Razor as before; the new directives will use the content of the value attribute (or the element text) to initialize $scope.description. And without the need to do another round-trip to the server!
You don't even need to change the controller and split model fields between
ViewResult Person::Details 


JsonResult Person::DetailsData.

# Saturday, January 11, 2014

Some programming jokes...

I found them hilarious :D

  • A UDP packet walks into a bar, no one acknowledges him
    Alternate version: A UDP packet walks into...
  • A guy walks into a bar and asks for 1.4 root beers. The bartender says "I'll have to charge you extra, that's a root beer float". The guy says "In that case, better make it a double."
  • Java and C were telling jokes. It was C's turn, so he writes something on the wall, points to it and says "Do you get the reference?" But Java didn't.
  • Why C gets all the girls and Java doesn't? Because C doesn't treat them like objects.
    • C could at least give Java some pointers...
  • Knock knock
    Who's there?
  • Knock knock
    Branch prediction.
    Who's there?
  • How many SEO engineers does it take to change a light bulb, lightbulb, globe, lamp, sex, xxx
  • 99 little bugs in the code
    99 bugs in the code
    patch one down, compile it around
    117 bugs in the code

# Thursday, January 09, 2014

Integration of Razor and AngularJS

In my previous post I described different ways of using AngularJS with ASP.NET MVC; in particular, some ways of sharing view data (the ViewModel) between ASP.NET and AngularJS.

While the last combination I used (ng-init for the ID(s) plus ajax requests for the bulk of data) satisfies me, there are three drawbacks with this approach:
  • the need to maintain two separate ViewModels: the ASP.NET @Model for Razor, which I put in *VM classes, and the Json model to initialize the AngulaJS $scope, which I put in *DTO classes.
  • two separate calls to the web server, one for the html content, one for the Json data
  • the data for the $scope is in the ajax request, and therefore it is difficult (impossible?) to make it available to "low-tech" clients; this means both browsers with no JavaScript and, more important in some cases, search engine robots.

One idea could be to put all the data inside the html page itself, by embedding everything in ng-init, in a Json object inside <script> or CDATA.. or (why not?) in the HTML itself!
For example, using "value" for inputs, the element text for paragraphs, and so on:

<input ... value="Some value">
<p ... >Some text</p>

Disclaimer: I know this is not "the Angular way"; the idiomatic way is to have data only in the $scope, not in the view. There are good reasons for it: clarity, testability are the ones to the top of my head. But mixing two paradigms may require compromises. Besides, it was fun to see if I could accomplish what I had in mind.

The way I did it was to create a couple of custom directives. For input, I did not create a new one, as input already has already a perfecly natural place (the "value" attribute) where I could put my initial value.

<input type="text" ng-model="someVariable" value="Some Value">

The purpose is to initialize $scope.someVariable with "Some Value", so that it can be used elsewhere, as in:


The binding should be bi-directional too. That's quite easy with input, I just had to redefine the "input" directive:

app.directive('input', function ($parse) {
  return {
    restrict: 'E',
    require: '?ngModel',
    link: function (scope, element, attrs) {
      if (attrs.ngModel && attrs.value) {
        $parse(attrs.ngModel).assign(scope, attrs.value);

For the element text I need a different directive; I wanted to write something like:

<span ng-model="anotherVariable" ng-content>Some nice text</span>

Whenever the "ng-content" directive is present, I wanted to initialize the model ("anotherVariable") with the element text. I wanted the binding to be by-directional too.

It wasn't much more difficult:

app.directive('ngContent', function ($parse) {
  return {
    restrict: 'A',
    require: '?ngModel',
    link: function (scope, element, attrs) {
      if (attrs.ngModel && element.text()) {
        $parse(attrs.ngModel).assign(scope, element.text());
      scope.$watch(attrs.ngModel, function(value) {

The "bi-directionality" is given by $watch; when the model changes, the element text is updated as well.
You can find a complete example that shows this behaviour at this plunker.

Enjoy! :)

# Wednesday, January 08, 2014

Mixing AngularJS and ASP.NET MVC

MiniPoint is a web application created using a mix of AngularJS and MVC.

In the past I have used JavaScript libraries (in particular, jQuery) in conjunction with other web frameworks (ASP.NET pages, mainly).
Before beginning to work on MiniPoint, more or less 5 months ago, I needed to create a very simple example application to show how an external developer could use our OAuth provider for authentication.

A former collegue pointed me to AngularJS, and I was very impressed by it.

Let me put it straight: I like jQuery, I think it's fantastic for two reasons: it just works everyswhere, taking upon itself the burden of cross-browser scripting, and it lets you work with your existing web pages and improve them, significantly and progressively.
But for complex web applications, AngularJS is just.. so much cleaner!

The philosophy is very different (you should read this excellent answer if you have not read it yet); as highlighted in it, you don't design your page, and then change it with DOM manipulations (that's the jQuery way). You use the page to tell what you want to accomplish. It's much closer to what you would do in XAML, for example, supporting very well the MVVM concept.
This difference between jQuery and AngularJS actually reminds me of WinForms (or old Java/Android) programming VS. WPF: the approach of the former is to build the UI (often with a designer) and then change it through code. The latter leverages the power of data-binding to declare in the view what you want to accomplish, what is supposed to happen.
The view directly presents the intent.

The first AngularJS application I created was a pure AngularJS application: all the views where "static" (served by the web server, not generated) and all the code, all the beaviour (routes, controllers, ...) was in AngularJS and in a bunch of REST services I build with ServiceStack. AngularJS and ServiceStack seem made for each other: the approach is was very clean and it works really well if you have a rich SPA (Single Page Application). It is different from what I was used to do, and I needed some time to wrap my head around it (I kept wishing I could control my views, my content, on the server).

So, for the next, bigger problem I said "well, let's have the best of both world: server-side generated (Razor) views with angular controllers, to have more control on the content; MVC controllers to server the Views and their content".

Seems easy, but it has a couple of issues. jQuery is great for pages produced by something else (ASP.NET), where you design a page, and then you make it dynamic using jQuery. This is because jQuery was designed for augmentation and has grown incredibly in that direction. AngularJS excels in building JavaScript applications, entirely in angular.

It is possible to integrate AngularJS with MVC, of course, but you have different choices of how to pass, or better transform, data from a MVC Controller, the (View)Model it generates, and the AngularJS controller and its "viewmodel" (the $scope). Choosing the right one is not always easy.

In plain MVC (producing a page with no client-side dynamic) you have a request coming in and (through routing) triggering and action (a method) on a Contoller. The Controller then builds a Model (the ViewBag, or a typed (View)Model), selects a View and passes the both the (View)Model and the View to a ViewEngine. The ViewEngine (Razor) uses the View as a template, and fills it with the data found in the (View)Model. The resulting html page is sent back to the client.

Why am I talking about (View)Model, instead of just plain Model? Because this is what I usually end up creating for any but the simplest Views. The data model, which hold the so-called "business objects", the one you are going to persist on your database, is often different from what you are going to render on a page. What you want to show on a page is often the combination of two (or more) objects from the data model. There is a whole pattern built on this concept: MVVM. The patter is widespread in frameworks with two-way binding mechanisms (Knockout.js, WPF, Silverlight); many (me included) find it beneficial even in frameworks like MVC; after all, the ViewBag is exactly that: a bag of data, drawn from your business objects, needed by the ViewEngine to correctly render a View.

However, instead of passing data through an opaque, untyped ViewBag, it is a good practice to build a class containing exactly the fields/data needed by the View (or, better, by Razor to build the View).

If you add AngularJS to the picture, you have to pass data not only to Razor, but to AngularJS as well. How can you do it? There are a couple of options:

Razor inside the script

   var id = @(Model.Id);

This approach works, of course: any data you need to share between the server and the client can be written directly in the script, by embedding it in the (cs)html page and generating the script with the page. I do not like this approach for a number of reasons, above all caching and clear separation of code (JavaScript) and view (html).

The url

I wanted to keep my controller code in a separate .js file, so I discarded this option. The next place where I looked at was the url; after all, it has been used for ages to pass information from the client to the server. For a start, I needed to pass a single ID, a tiny little number, to angular. I already had this tiny number on the URL, as ASP.NET routing passes it to a Controller action (as a parameter) to identify a resource. As an example, suppose we have a list of persons, and we want the details relative to a single person with ID 3. ASP.NET routing expects a URL like:


This maps "automatically" (or better, by convention) to:

ActionResult PersonController::Details(int id)

If I want to get the same number in my angular controller, I could just get the very same url using the location service, and parse it like MVC routing does:

var id = $location.path().substring($location.path().lastIndexOf("/"));

But it's kind of ugly, and I find it "hack-ish" to do it in this way, so I kept looking.

Razor inside the page (ng-init)

A better alternative is to use Razor to write "something" on the page, and then read it from the client script. You can use hidden fields, custom data- attributes and so on; fortunately angular already provide an attribute for this purpose, ng-init.

<div xmlns:ng="http://angularjs.org" id="ng-app" class="ng-app:MiniModule" ng-app="MiniModule">
    <div class="row-fluid" ng-controller="PersonDetailsController" ng-init="personId=@Model.Id">

Angular injects it in the scope during initialization, so you can refer to it as $scope.personId


Finally, one of the most common way to trasfer data from the server to a script it through ajax calls. AngularJS has a great service ($http), very simple and powerful:

        success(function (data, status) {
            $scope.data = data;
        }).error(function (data, status) {

On the server side, there is a

JsonResult PersonController::GroupData()

method which returns a JsonResult, encapsulating a Json object.

Mixing up

It is not convenient to use ng-init for large objects, or for many objects. On the other hand, you need a practical way to pass around an ID, to use ajax on resources that requires it (like http://localhost/Person/Details/3).

The more sensible approach, which I ended up using, seems to use ng-init to pass around the id, and ajax to actually retrieve the data. In the current implementation of MiniPoint it seems to work quite well.
In general, when I have a resource (like Person) and I want to show and edit information and details linked to it, I have:
  • an object model (Person)
  • a ViewModel (PersonVM) which is populated in controller actions and passed to the View:

ActionResult PersonController::Details(int id) {
   return View(new PersonVM { ... });

@model PersonVM

<div xmlns:ng="http://angularjs.org" id="ng-app" class="ng-app:MiniModule" ng-app="MiniModule">
    <div class="row-fluid" ng-controller="PersonDetailsController" ng-init="personId=@Model.Id">

  • a Person data transfer object (PersonDTO) which is populated requested by the angular controller, populated by a "Data" controller action and then returned as JSON to the controller:

    // Defer ajax call to let ng-init assign the correct values
    $scope.$evalAsync(function () {
        $http.get("/Person/DetailsData/" + $scope.personId).
            success(function (data, status) {
                $scope.data = data;
                // ...
            }).error(function (data, status) {
                // error handling

JsonResult PersonController::DetailsData(int id) {
   return Json(new PersonDTO { ... });

# Thursday, January 02, 2014

The MiniPoint Workflow language

The workflow language was, for me, the funniest part of MiniPoint. I love working on languages, small or big ones it's not important, as long as they are interesting. In fact, MiniPoint has more than one language/parser: workflows, document templates, AngularJS expressions, ... Most are tiny, but every one makes the code cleaner and the user experience more pleasant.

Take, as an example, the simple boolean language to express visibility of a field on a view; as I mentioned in my previous post, you can make individual fields visible or not (and required or not) using boolean expressions  (or, and, not, <, >, ==, <>) over constants and other fields in the view (or in the schema).
The expression is parsed and then analyzed  to produce two things: an AngularJS expression, which will be inserted into the ng-required and ng-show/ng-hide attributes to make it work entirely on the client side, and the list of affected fields.
Which is the purpose of this list? Remember that a view is only a subset of the schema, but in these visible/required expression you can refer to other member of the schema as well (from previous views, usually).
AngularJS initializes its "viewmodel" (the $scope) with an ajax request (getting JSON data from a ASP.NET controller); For efficiency, we keep this data at a minimum, which usually is a subset of the fields in the view (readonly fields, for example, are rendered on the server and not transmitted). When we have an expressions, however, fields referenced in the expression need to end up in the $scope too, hence the reason of parsing and analyzing the expressions.

But I am digressing; I will write more about the interaction and integration of AngularJS and Razor (and MVC) in another post.

Now I would like to talk about some aspects of the workflow language that needed a bit of thinking on how to best implement them.

I wanted it to be simple, natural to use (i.e. you can use statements/expressions/constructs wherever it makes sense and expect them to work) but still powerful enough. And have a clean grammar too :)

I wrote some langauges in the past, but this is the first one where statement terminators (';') are optional, and you can just use returns.
The people that are going to write the schemas and workflows (so not the end-users, but the "power-users", or site administrators) have a strong background in ... VBA. Therefore, when a decision about the language came up, I tried to use a VBA-like syntax, to give them a familiar look. So, for example, If-EndIf instead of braces { }.
And I wanted to do it because it was interesting, of course! I had to structure my semantic actions a bit differently, as I was getting reduce-reduce conflicts using my usual approach.

On the surface, you it seems that you have statements (very similar to other programming languages), choices (if-then-else-endif) and gotos. I know.. Ugh! gotos! Bear with me :)

step ("view1")

var i = 10

if (i + me.SomeField > 20)
  i = i - 20
  goto view1
  goto end

//Generate a report, using the "report1" template
report ("report1")

step ("final"): end 

nder the hood, things are a bit.. different. Remember, this is a textual language for a flowchart. So, "step" is actually an input/output block (parallelogram); statements and reports are generic processing steps (rectangles); the "if-then-else" is a choice (rhombus). Therefore if-then-else has a stricter than usual syntax, and it's actually:
IF (condition) [statements] GOTO ELSE [statements] GOTO ENDIF
so that the two possible outcomes are always steps in the workflow.

Therfore, under the hood you have a list of "steps", which may be a statement list (like "var i = 10"), an input/output step ("step" or "delay"), or a branch.
As a consequence, the language has somehow two-levels; at the first level you have "steps"; then, among "steps" or inside them (look at the if-then-else in the example) you can have expressions and statements like in most other programming languages. The two levels appear quite clearly in the grammar, but I think it's difficult to tell from the syntax. And this is what I wanted to accomplish. Who used it to author the workflows was quite pleased, and used it with no problems after very little training.

Tranlsation to WF activities was fun as well: I built a custom Composite Activity to schedule all the steps; also statements (instead of receiving their own activity) where merged together and executed bu the main composite activity, to improve efficiency (and make it easier to add other statements: a new one does not require a new activity).