# Wednesday, January 08, 2014

Mixing AngularJS and ASP.NET MVC

MiniPoint is a web application created using a mix of AngularJS and MVC.

In the past I have used JavaScript libraries (in particular, jQuery) in conjunction with other web frameworks (ASP.NET pages, mainly).
Before beginning to work on MiniPoint, more or less 5 months ago, I needed to create a very simple example application to show how an external developer could use our OAuth provider for authentication.

A former collegue pointed me to AngularJS, and I was very impressed by it.

Let me put it straight: I like jQuery, I think it's fantastic for two reasons: it just works everyswhere, taking upon itself the burden of cross-browser scripting, and it lets you work with your existing web pages and improve them, significantly and progressively.
But for complex web applications, AngularJS is just.. so much cleaner!

The philosophy is very different (you should read this excellent answer if you have not read it yet); as highlighted in it, you don't design your page, and then change it with DOM manipulations (that's the jQuery way). You use the page to tell what you want to accomplish. It's much closer to what you would do in XAML, for example, supporting very well the MVVM concept.
This difference between jQuery and AngularJS actually reminds me of WinForms (or old Java/Android) programming VS. WPF: the approach of the former is to build the UI (often with a designer) and then change it through code. The latter leverages the power of data-binding to declare in the view what you want to accomplish, what is supposed to happen.
The view directly presents the intent.

The first AngularJS application I created was a pure AngularJS application: all the views where "static" (served by the web server, not generated) and all the code, all the beaviour (routes, controllers, ...) was in AngularJS and in a bunch of REST services I build with ServiceStack. AngularJS and ServiceStack seem made for each other: the approach is was very clean and it works really well if you have a rich SPA (Single Page Application). It is different from what I was used to do, and I needed some time to wrap my head around it (I kept wishing I could control my views, my content, on the server).

So, for the next, bigger problem I said "well, let's have the best of both world: server-side generated (Razor) views with angular controllers, to have more control on the content; MVC controllers to server the Views and their content".

Seems easy, but it has a couple of issues. jQuery is great for pages produced by something else (ASP.NET), where you design a page, and then you make it dynamic using jQuery. This is because jQuery was designed for augmentation and has grown incredibly in that direction. AngularJS excels in building JavaScript applications, entirely in angular.

It is possible to integrate AngularJS with MVC, of course, but you have different choices of how to pass, or better transform, data from a MVC Controller, the (View)Model it generates, and the AngularJS controller and its "viewmodel" (the $scope). Choosing the right one is not always easy.

In plain MVC (producing a page with no client-side dynamic) you have a request coming in and (through routing) triggering and action (a method) on a Contoller. The Controller then builds a Model (the ViewBag, or a typed (View)Model), selects a View and passes the both the (View)Model and the View to a ViewEngine. The ViewEngine (Razor) uses the View as a template, and fills it with the data found in the (View)Model. The resulting html page is sent back to the client.

Why am I talking about (View)Model, instead of just plain Model? Because this is what I usually end up creating for any but the simplest Views. The data model, which hold the so-called "business objects", the one you are going to persist on your database, is often different from what you are going to render on a page. What you want to show on a page is often the combination of two (or more) objects from the data model. There is a whole pattern built on this concept: MVVM. The patter is widespread in frameworks with two-way binding mechanisms (Knockout.js, WPF, Silverlight); many (me included) find it beneficial even in frameworks like MVC; after all, the ViewBag is exactly that: a bag of data, drawn from your business objects, needed by the ViewEngine to correctly render a View.

However, instead of passing data through an opaque, untyped ViewBag, it is a good practice to build a class containing exactly the fields/data needed by the View (or, better, by Razor to build the View).

If you add AngularJS to the picture, you have to pass data not only to Razor, but to AngularJS as well. How can you do it? There are a couple of options:

Razor inside the script

<script>
   ...
   var id = @(Model.Id);
   ...
</script>

This approach works, of course: any data you need to share between the server and the client can be written directly in the script, by embedding it in the (cs)html page and generating the script with the page. I do not like this approach for a number of reasons, above all caching and clear separation of code (JavaScript) and view (html).

The url

I wanted to keep my controller code in a separate .js file, so I discarded this option. The next place where I looked at was the url; after all, it has been used for ages to pass information from the client to the server. For a start, I needed to pass a single ID, a tiny little number, to angular. I already had this tiny number on the URL, as ASP.NET routing passes it to a Controller action (as a parameter) to identify a resource. As an example, suppose we have a list of persons, and we want the details relative to a single person with ID 3. ASP.NET routing expects a URL like:

http://localhost/Person/Details/3

This maps "automatically" (or better, by convention) to:

ActionResult PersonController::Details(int id)

If I want to get the same number in my angular controller, I could just get the very same url using the location service, and parse it like MVC routing does:

var id = $location.path().substring($location.path().lastIndexOf("/"));

But it's kind of ugly, and I find it "hack-ish" to do it in this way, so I kept looking.

Razor inside the page (ng-init)

A better alternative is to use Razor to write "something" on the page, and then read it from the client script. You can use hidden fields, custom data- attributes and so on; fortunately angular already provide an attribute for this purpose, ng-init.

<div xmlns:ng="http://angularjs.org" id="ng-app" class="ng-app:MiniModule" ng-app="MiniModule">
    <div class="row-fluid" ng-controller="PersonDetailsController" ng-init="personId=@Model.Id">

Angular injects it in the scope during initialization, so you can refer to it as $scope.personId

Ajax

Finally, one of the most common way to trasfer data from the server to a script it through ajax calls. AngularJS has a great service ($http), very simple and powerful:

$http.get("/Person/GroupData/").
        success(function (data, status) {
            $scope.data = data;
        }).error(function (data, status) {
            $scope.alerts.push(data);
        });

On the server side, there is a

JsonResult PersonController::GroupData()

method which returns a JsonResult, encapsulating a Json object.


Mixing up

It is not convenient to use ng-init for large objects, or for many objects. On the other hand, you need a practical way to pass around an ID, to use ajax on resources that requires it (like http://localhost/Person/Details/3).

The more sensible approach, which I ended up using, seems to use ng-init to pass around the id, and ajax to actually retrieve the data. In the current implementation of MiniPoint it seems to work quite well.
In general, when I have a resource (like Person) and I want to show and edit information and details linked to it, I have:
  • an object model (Person)
  • a ViewModel (PersonVM) which is populated in controller actions and passed to the View:

ActionResult PersonController::Details(int id) {
   ...
   return View(new PersonVM { ... });
}

@model PersonVM
...

<div xmlns:ng="http://angularjs.org" id="ng-app" class="ng-app:MiniModule" ng-app="MiniModule">
    <div class="row-fluid" ng-controller="PersonDetailsController" ng-init="personId=@Model.Id">
...

  • a Person data transfer object (PersonDTO) which is populated requested by the angular controller, populated by a "Data" controller action and then returned as JSON to the controller:

    // Defer ajax call to let ng-init assign the correct values
    $scope.$evalAsync(function () {
        $http.get("/Person/DetailsData/" + $scope.personId).
            success(function (data, status) {
                $scope.data = data;
                // ...
            }).error(function (data, status) {
                // error handling
            });
    });


JsonResult PersonController::DetailsData(int id) {
   ...
   return Json(new PersonDTO { ... });
}

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